Appearance

Eye Shapes:

# avoid symmetrical upper and lower eyelids, try to favor one side or the other

# don't mix two S curves, ex: use an S curve on the top and a simple curve on the bottom

# as a general rule always have at least one of the lids ( upper or lower ) contacting or intersecting the iris, unless you want it to look crazy

# Use the rotation of the eyelids to help direct the viewer.

Eye Direction:

# The direction of each eye will be read based on the white area around the eye. The two eyes need to sync up for the set of eyes to look correct.

Eye Movement

Patterns:

# eyes tend to focus, shift, focus

# sometimes the eyes lead the head, sometimes vice versa

# eye darts: usually 2 frames either moving the first 2/3s of the move for the first frame then 1/3 the second or moving 1/3 for the first frame and 2/3 for the second. Eye darts have linear interpolation, one of the few things without arc

# even during a moving hold the eyes will have little micro shifts as they study what they're looking at generally the more concentrated a set of eyes is on a target the more microshifts it will have

# Studies have shown that individuals tend to look in a specific direction when accessing different parts of their brain:

- Up and to their Left: Visual Elements, logical thoughts

- Up and to their Right: Visual Construction , creative thoughts

- directly to their Left: Auditory sounds,

- directly to their Right is a Auditory Constructive thought like what does a werewolf sound like

- Down Left: is talking internally speaking to themselves

- Down Right is thinking about a taste or a feeling

# Happy Eyes:

- widen as they recieve good news,

- brows move faster

- faster blinks, half blinks mixed in with full blinks

- pupils tend to dialate when they're happy

# Angry Eyes:

- brows come down and in

- quicker blinks ( char is more excited)

- eyes squint more ( aggetation and not wanting to see what they are looking at)

- pupils contract ( more tension)

# Sad Eyes:

- brows come down but not in

- upper eyelids are lower

- the eye darts tend to look down ( down and right thinking internally)

- an ashamed character avoids eye contact, darts are constrained

# Lying Eyes:

- blinking increases ( aggetation)

- looking up and to their right the character is visually constructing something

Eye Lids

Baseline:

# every character will have base line that they keep there eyelids in relation to their irises. This will vary from character to character and it will vary depending upon the characters mood. When they're more excited their eyelids will ride higher, when they're relaxed they'll ride lower. You need to establish this default baseline so eye flares will read, mainly exposing more white above the irises.

Flares

# use eye flares to help accent with the dialogue

Blinks

Patterns:

# Ask yourself, what's my character's emotional state right now? What are they reacting to?

# the most usefull blinks are during a change of thought or hiding or showing emotion.

# Secondory blinks occur during eye shifts, and during head turns (not every instance though) Which in most cases is motivated by one of the first two anyway.

# The number of blinks can affect emotion: Rapid blinks can make a character feel shy, nervous, uncomfortable, relieved or like they are about to cry. Not blinking at all can feel angry, stoned, dead, or super intense.

# people naturally blink during large changes of focus

# happy blinks will tend to be faster than sad blinks

# the average adult blinks 4-16 times/minute.

# babies and young children blink less (1-2 times/minute), and old people blink more

# when doing something that requires concentration we blink less, often proceeded by faster blinks before starting the task that requires concentration.

Mechanics

# a typical 2D blink is 2 frames down 2 frames closed, and 2 frames up but vary the eyelids vs.a linear move often the eyes will close faster than they open, speed in to the blink, cushion in to the close and re-opening.

# a more realistic blink is 2 frames down, +1 frame closed for a two frame hold, the second down can dip even lower as the top lids press the bottom lids down, and 6-14 frames open with the last 6-7 frames being a cushion in to the open position . The opening phase is three times as long as the closing phase with the majority of it being the cushioning effect at the end of the blink.

# you can either ease in the top lids or overshoot and settle

# Interpolate the middle frames up or down from 50% to read better )(could be done with tangents) shoot for having the down breakdown in the upper third and the up breadown in the lower third

# add in a slight shift of the brow during blinks to loosen up the face, try leading the brows then the eyelid to breakup the timing.

# Like everything else the eyelids should be offset/assymetry for interest, but not drastically

# you can pinch the corners shut as you open the eyes to give them a fleshier feel